Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2016) 1(1): 12-19
12
Farmers perception about yield losses of kinnow (Citrus
reticulate) during its harvesting and post harvesting
operations: A case study of tehsil Sargodha, Pakistan
Farhat Ullah Khan
1
*, Nowshad Khan
1
and Fouzia Anjum
1
Key Message During this research, various factors causing yield losses of kinnow during its harvesting and
post-harvesting operations were studied in tehsil Sargodha Pakistan, which is famous for high production of
kinnow.
ABSTRACT Kinnow is one of the major fruit crops of Pakistan and it is produced at a large scale in Punjab
province of Pakistan. In Punjab province, the district Sargodha is famous for high production of kinnow.
Unfortunately, during harvesting and post harvesting operations, the losses of kinnow yields in Pakistan are
higher than that of other kinnow producing countries of the world. Therefore, this research study was
conducted to observe various factors leading to yield losses of kinnow during harvesting and post harvesting.
For it, 20 union councils of tehsil Sargodha were selected and from each union council, 10 kinnow growers
were selected randomly. A total of 200 farmers were selected for the sample. The results revealed that 91%
farmers reported fruit injuries during picking. A majority of farmers (67%) reported that 20% losses of the
total yield occurred during picking. (51%) and 70% farmers did not have transport capabilities and storage
facilities, respectively so losses occurred during these stages. Rough handling should be avoided during
harvesting operation. Due to the defective marketing system, the farmers get low income which discourages
the farmers from adopting recommended orchard management practices. Therefore, government should pay
due attention to the establishment of an effective citrus marketing system.
Keywords: Harvest and post-harvest, Kinnow, Sargodha, Yield losses
1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Farhat Ullah Khan (farhatkhan7@gmail.com)
To cite this article as: Khan, F. U., Khan, N., & Anjum, F. (2016). Farmers perception about yield losses of
kinnow (Citrus reticulate) during its harvesting and post harvesting operations: A case study of tehsil
Sargodha, Pakistan. Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture, 1(1), 12-19.
INTRODUCTION
Fruits are an important part of Pakistan’s agricultural exports. The environment and soil of Pakistan is very
favorable for the production of fruits. Due to the favorable environment approximately 30 types of fruits are
commonly produced in Pakistan. The most common fruits produced in the country are citrus, mango, apple,
dates, grapes, banana, melons and guava (Khan & Shaukat, 2006; Government of Pakistan, 2008-2009;
Shahzad et al., 2015). In terms of area utilized, production and export, citrus are at the top among all other
fruits produced in Pakistan (Ghafoor et al., 2008).
In Pakistan, it has been reported that 29.55% of the total area under fruit cultivation accounts for citrus,
while 60% of total acreage under citrus cultivation is being used for kinnow cultivation (Government of
Pakistan, 2003-2004). Likewise, due to more area under cultivation, the production and export of kinnow
leads among the citrus fruits. In Pakistan, the highest citrus yielding province is Punjab that covers 95% of the
total area of the country under citrus farming (Tahir, 2014). Pakistan is among the top ten kinnow producing
countries. In Pakistan, citrus is playing a significant role in creating employment by engaging manpower in
several activities ranging from its production to its harvesting. In an estimate, more than 75,000 people
secure jobs by performing activities of kinnow production and its marketing in Pakistan (Sharif et al., 2005).
ORIGINAL PAPER
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Pakistan exports kinnow to Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Netherlands, Singapore,
Indonesia, UK, Russia and Malaysia.
There are various harvesting and post-harvesting problems which citrus industries in Pakistan are facing.
Due to these problems, the quality and quantity of the citrus fruits are being adversely affected. As a result,
there is less export of the fruit that brings high economic loss to the country. In Pakistan, the common
practice of mandarin harvesting is plucking of fruit along with pedicels and clusters of leaves that account for
major injury during transportation.
The highest post-harvest loss of citrus especially kinnow has been reported in January to February. It is
due to less usage of cold storage at domestic level of marketing, as severe cold prevails during these two
months. The contractor tries to secure high price of fruit due to delayed plucking, but on the other hand, this
delayed plucking highly affects the flowering of plants for the coming season. The producers like to prepare
their orchards as early as possible. This situation produces clashes between these parties. Moreover, less use
of cold storage also causes losses due to frost and diseases that cause significant financial loss for kinnow
producers (Shah et al., 2015). Lack of knowledge about marketing results in pre-harvesting of citrus. The
commission agents are not interested in transferring information about market price to producers and it is a
great barrier for producers to participate actively in the process (Sharif et al., 2005).
The other major factors that contribute to post-harvest losses of citrus include operational efficiency, pre-
cooling, treatments such as fungicides and waxes, and storage conditions (Kader & Arpaia, 2002). Ali (2004)
investigated the marketing of citrus fruits in Pakistan and reported that traditional methods of citrus
cultivation and non-technical harvesting were the core reasons affecting the production potential of citrus. In
addition, these activities were also causing post-harvest losses. There is an immediate need to stabilize the
market and guide farmers to adopt sustainable and effective harvesting methods. Keeping in view these facts,
the present study was carried out to identify the causes of yield losses of kinnow (Mandarin) during
harvesting and post harvesting (2011-2012). In this study, district Sargodha was selected as a study area
because it is the main district of kinnow production in Pakistan.
METHODOLGY
The descriptive method of research was used for this study. Purposively, 20 union councils from tehsil
Sargodha were selected, and 10 kinnow growers from each union council were taken on a random basis.
(200) farmers were interviewed through interview schedule. The farmers were interviewed by a researcher
personally at their homes and farms. Busy hours of the farmers were respected, and interviews were
conducted at their free time. The objective of the research study was explained to the farmers before starting
the actual interview. The data collected was tabulated systematically and analyzed statistically. Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. All the results were presented in counts and
percentages in different tabular form. The associations of picking, storage, and post-harvest factors with yield
of kinnow were tested with the help of chi-square test at 0.05 level of significance. Significance level is the
probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. In this survey research, the data was analyzed at
significance level of 0.05 which indicates a 5% risk of concluding that a difference exists when there is no
actual difference.
RESULTS
The main objective of this research project was to study the yield losses of kinnow (Mandarin) during
harvesting and post harvesting operations. Therefore farmers were asked various questions regarding the
factors that cause kinnow losses.
Distribution of farmers for harvesting of kinnow fruits
The harvest season of citrus starts from September with harvesting of Feutral’s Early and ends up to March
with the harvesting of kinnow, of which sometimes the harvesting continues up to April. The appropriate
time of harvest determines the net profit of the producers. The methods of harvesting of citrus are being
changed from time to time and farmers tried to make improvements keeping in mind the resources and
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2016) 1(1): 12-19
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technical knowledge. The farmers were asked about the method of picking of kinnow (Mandarin) fruit. The
data in table 2 shows that all farmers were picking the fruit by hand with cutter.
Losses of kinnow fruits during picking
Farmers were asked about the fruit injury caused during picking of kinnow fruits. A majority of the farmers
(91%) reported injuries of kinnow fruit during the picking. While 9% respondents answer was “No” about
injuries of fruit during the picking, our study found a clear association of fruit injuries with yield of kinnow
fruit (Table 3).
Percentage of losses of kinnow fruit during picking
The farmers were asked about percentage losses of kinnow fruit of the total yield during picking. The data
presented in table 4 shows that a majority of the farmers (67%) reported that up to 20% losses of the total
yield occurred during picking, followed by the farmers (20%) who reported losses between 21-35% during
picking. Only 4% reported losses above 50% during picking, and 9% farmers reported no loss during picking.
There was significance difference (P<0.05) between percent fruit losses and yield of kinnow.
Distribution of farmers according to their access to kinnow market
In Pakistan traditional marketing of agricultural products is not functioning efficiently in the modern market
place. There are differences between prices paid by the consumers and prices received by the growers. In this
way, marketing affects the production of kinnow fruits. Interviews were conducted to learn about the
marketing problems and their effects on the yield of kinnow. The farmers were asked about the access to the
kinnow market. The data presented in the table 5 shows that a large majority of the farmers (89%) had access
to market. Only 11% farmers had no access to the market.
Type of kinnow market/selling of kinnow fruit
The farmers were asked about the type of kinnow market. The data given in table 6 shows that a majority of
the farmers (68.5%) sold their fruit to the local agent.
Ways of selling kinnow fruit
Farmers were asked about their strategies for selling their fruit. A large number of the farmers (78%) sold
their fruits through cash payment (Table 7). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between the way to
sell kinnow fruit and the yield of the kinnow fruits. Late payment by the dealers and lower prices in the
market discourage the growers, while reasonable prices and cash payments encourage the growers to adopt
recommended harvesting and post harvesting technologies to get high citrus yield.
Distribution of farmers with access to transport facilities
The farmers were also asked about the transport facilities to carry fruit to the market. A majority of the
farmers (51%) replied that they did not have transport facilities to carry fruit from the field to the market
(Table 8). They hired transport to the market place.
Fruit storage facilities
Storage facilities for citrus are an important factor for stabilizing the price of citrus fruits. The farmers were
also asked about the storage facilities of kinnow fruit. A majority of the farmers (70%) reported that they did
not have storage facilities, while 30% farmers had storage facilities (Table 9). There was significance
difference (P<0.05) between storage facilities and the yield of kinnow (Table 9). Proper storage facility is very
important for marketing of kinnow. Non-availability of refrigerated transport facilities and poor condition of
the roads, are responsible for high losses of kinnow. The farmers hire the cold storage at very high rate. Due
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2016) 1(1): 12-19
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to the absence this storage facility, the yield of kinnow is adversely affected and thus loss to Pakistan
Economy.
Preference to have fruit storage facilities
When farmers were asked if they would like to have better storage facilities, a majority of the respondents
(67%) reported that this would benefit them. There was also significance difference (P<0.05) between the
preference of the farmers to have storage facilities and the yield (Table 10).
Table 1 Provincial wise area and production of citrus cultivation in Pakistan
Province
Area (Hectares)
Production (Tones)
Punjab
182558
2328090
Sindh
4930
29668
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
3840
30871
Baluchistan
1504
6921
Source: Fruit, Vegetables and Condiments Statistics of Pakistan, 2014-15
Table 2 Distribution of farmers for harvesting of kinnow fruits
Fruit picking
Frequency
Percentage
Total
Manual
200
100
200
Any other method
-
-
-
Table 3 Losses of kinnow fruits during picking
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Chi-square significance level
Yes
182
91.0
0.001
No
18
9.0
Total
200
100
Table 4 Percentage of losses of kinnow fruit during picking
Frequency
Percentage
Chi-square significance level
18
9.0
0.000
134
67.0
40
20.0
8
4.0
-
-
200
100
Table 5 Distribution of farmers with access to kinnow market
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
178
89
No
22
11
Total
200
100
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Table 6 Type of kinnow market/selling of kinnow fruit
Response
Frequency
Percentage
No access to market
22
11.0
Local agent
137
68.5
Wholesale
31
15.5
Personal order
8
4.0
Any other
2
1.0
Total
200
100
Table 7 Ways of selling kinnow fruit
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Chi-square significance level
Cash payment
156
78.0
0.000
Advance payment
32
16.0
Loan
8 (4.0)
4.0
Any other
4 (2.0)
2.0
Total
200 (100.0)
100
Table 8 Distribution of farmers with access to transport facilities
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
98
49.0
No
102
51.0
Total
200
100
Table 9 Fruit storage facilities
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Chi-square significance level
Yes
60
30.0
0.000
No
140
70.0
Total
200
100
Table 10 Preference to have fruit storage facilities
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Chi-square significance level
Had facility
60
30.0
0.002
Yes
134
67.0
No
6
3.0
Total
200
100
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DISCUSSION
Pakistan is among the top ten kinnow producing countries. Kinnow is produced at a large scale in province
Punjab, Pakistan. In addition to providing income, it also generates employment for the poor masses
involving them in diverse activities from production to marketing. But its yield is reduced drastically during
harvesting and post harvesting operations. The highest loss of kinnow production occurs in January-February
due to unavailability of cold storage at domestic level resulting in severe diseases that cause significant
financial loss for kinnow growers (Shah et al., 2015). We were interested to learn about the farmers
perceptions about the yield losses of kinnow during harvesti