Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
26
Working efficiency of extension field staff with regards to
integrated pest management of cotton in district D. G. Khan,
Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Adeel
1
, Badar Naseem Siddiqui
1
, Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen
1*
, Adnan Rayit
1
and Shah Fahd
1
Key Message This study evaluates the working efficiency of extension field staff with special reference to
integrated pest management (IPM) of cotton in agricultural development of country and D. G. Khan region
especially.
ABSTRACT In the agriculture sector, the success of any program and project depends upon the working
efficiency of extension field staff (EFS). EFS are key stake holders and play crucial roles in the extension
services, particularly in agriculture and rural development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to
evaluate the working efficiency of extension field staff with special reference to IPM of cotton growers in
district D. G. Khan. The results reveal that most of the respondents (44.2%) were under 35 years of age and
about 80.80% of them were educated. A majority of the respondents (85%) had small land holding up to 12.5
acres. Less than half of the respondents (42.5%) reported that EFS provided extension services fortnightly.
More than half of the respondents (56.7%) reported that EFS provided excellent information regarding
resistant varieties. About 69.2 to 84.2% of the respondents reported that microorganisms, beneficial insects,
buying and releasing beneficial insect and protecting beneficial insects were poorly addressed. Insecticidal
soap and horticultural oil were the activities that performed poorly by the EFS as reported by a vast majority
(90%) of the respondents. More than half of the respondents (56.7%) were of the view that the time involved
was a big problem in applying IPM. The entire respondents (99.2 -100%) were of the view that IPM had
positive impact on their crops. So the concerted efforts such as launching of IPM program for cotton crop in
other districts of Punjab, Pakistan should be made with the aim of adopting cultural and biological control
rather than chemical control.
Keywords: Agriculture extension, Cotton growers, Extension field staff, Extension services, Integrated pest
management
1
Department of Agricultural Extension, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
*Correspondence author: Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen
(waqar_tareen90@yahoo.com)
To cite this article as: Adeel, M., Siddiqui, B. N., Tareen, W. H., Rayit, A., & Fahd, S. (2017). Working efficiency
of extension field staff with regards to integrated pest management of cotton in district D. G. Khan, Punjab,
Pakistan. Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture 2(1), 26-40.
INTRODUCTION
In Pakistan, agricultural extension acts as a catalyst in agriculture and rural development because it brings
innovations to the farming community for the improvement of its living standards. It provides a channel
through which the farmers can solve their problems of research as well as revision of agricultural policies for
the maximization of profits of rural areas (FAO, 2002a). It is the prime responsibility of the Agricultural
Extension Department to transfer the latest agriculture technology and technical assistance to the farming
community for improving agricultural production. In a previous research study, Urooba (2001) reported that
inefficiency of extension services was the major cause of failure of self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
Generally, government bodies have been trying their best to fill the yield gap of various crops launching a
number of agricultural extension programmes in Pakistan (FAO, 2002b). This situation demonstrates clearly
that production of various crops depends upon education, research and extension of agricultural innovations
and technologies (National Rural Support Programme [NRSP], 1999). Today, agriculture in Pakistan is totally
ORIGINAL PAPER
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
27
different from that of the past owing to the shift from conventional to modern technology. The rate and
direction of agriculture development is determined by the farmers’ capacities to adapt the changing
technologies. At national level, unsuitable extension policies, inadequate community development funds,
dearth of accountability and high rural poverty are the major causes that have provoked the developing
world to re-constitute the relevant policies of agricultural extension for rural development (Shah, 1998).
In Pakistan, the contributions of major crops like sugarcane, rice, cotton and wheat to GDP are 1, 1.3, 2 and
3.4%, while their share in agriculture value addition are 4.2, 5.4, 8.2 and 13.8%, respectively. But the yield of
these crops is lower as compared to other countries because a huge gap has been produced between the
actual and potential yield of the major crops. Until 2000, IPM was not established in Pakistan. The misuse of
pesticides and their negative effects on the society has become a key element of agriculture development
policy for sustainable development of the country (Guinee, 2002). According to a report by Central Cotton
Research Institute [CCRI], (2012), cotton has become a major cash crop that contributes about 62% of the
total foreign exchange earned by the major field crops in Pakistan. It provides the labour force for its
cultivation and employment to 40% of industrial labour in textile industries. Moreover, cotton seed oil
accounts for 60% of total edible oil usage. Agricultural productivity depends upon the availability of
improved technology and its active dissemination. But high dissatisfaction has been found among the farming
communities regarding the efficiency of the present extension system (Malik & Prawl, 1993). Dearth of
qualified staff, outdated syllabi for agricultural subjects, deficiency of trainings, no use of audio visual aids,
lack of timely information about the latest technologies are the major problems of extension services.
Therefore, the impact of these factors should be appraised to improve the capability of extension field staff so
that the sustainable agricultural production may be improved.
In spite of much emphasis laid on agricultural extension services in the dissemination of improved
agricultural practices, the farmers are still in search of satisfaction regarding the performance of extension
field staff. The farmers demand that EFS should work like a bridge between the research stations and
farmers. EFS provide the latest technologies to the farmers to improve their crop production. Small farmers
also expect equal services and opportunities, so EFS should provide them equal services irrespective of the
client’s social status and landholdings because in our country, a majority of farmers have small land holding
capacity. Working efficiency is the accomplishment of a job with a minimum expenditure of time and effort. In
this project the working efficiency of EFS was checked at first stage whether the farmers were aware about
IPM practices in the study area and then the adoption level of those IPM practices was explored among the
farmers. Hence, this study was planned first time to explore the working efficiency of extension field staff
(EFS) in relation to IPM of cotton crop in district D. G. Khan, Punjab, Pakistan and then to assess the impact of
adoption of IPM recommendations in cotton crop. Adoption rate of IPM practices is directly related to the
working efficiency of EFS. The formula of efficiency = output/input so, adoption rate is the output of our
efforts and it directly relates with the efficiency. The study was also intended to evaluate the effectiveness of
extension method applied to promote the IPM of cotton crop and to measure the satisfaction level of the
farmers about the trainings of IPM for cotton under FFS strategy. Basically, all these objectives including
effectiveness of extension methods applied to promote IPM and the satisfaction of farmers with the extension
strategies were considered to analyze the working efficiency of EFS. It is hoped that the findings of the study
will be helpful for probing into the level of expectations and satisfaction of farming community towards the
working efficiency of EFS with reference to IPM of cotton growers.
METHODOLOGY
The study was conducted in sub district D. G. Khan. The district D. G. Khan comprises of three sub districts; D.
G. Khan, Taunsa and Tribal Area. Sub district Tribal Area and Taunsa are not cotton cropped areas so these
have not been included in the study. Sub district D. G. Khan was selected purposefully for the present study.
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
28
Sampling procedure
The study area comprises of more than 0.5 million farmers so it was difficult to collect data from all of these
farmers. Therefore, random sampling was adopted to collect the data from the field. In this study, a simple
random sampling technique was used. Out of total 41 union councils of sub district D. G. Khan, 6 union
councils were randomly selected for the present study. Two villages from each nominated union council were
selected using random sampling technique. From each village, 10 cotton growers working with IPM of cotton
with the collaboration of EFS were then selected randomly hereby making a total 120 cotton growers as a
sample for the study.
Study tool
Structured interview schedule was constructed keeping in view the objectives of the research and with the
consultation of supervisor. The questionnaire was developed in English language but was asked from the
respondents in their local languages like Saraiki and Urdu. Interview schedule consisted of open and close
ended questions which were asked directly from the respondents to collect the accurate and relevant data.
Random sampling was done on lottery system at every stage of random sampling technique. A list of farmers
using IPM technique was generated and respondent’s selection was done on lottery system that is each
respondent may gain an equal chance of selection.
Pre-testing
During this study, a pre-testing was done on ten respondents to check the accuracy and efficiency of the
interviewing plan. Subsequently, some essential modifications were made to make the plan more
appropriate, efficient, understandable and reliable. The data was collected from those farmers who were
participating in an IPM cotton programme in the study area. The data was collected from FFS, IPM cotton
yield enhancement project sub district D. G. Khan.
Data analysis
After the collection of the data, results of the study were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS) in which frequency distributions, tabulations, and graphs were made.
RESULTS
Socio-economic features of the respondents
During this study, the socio-economic features of the respondents including age, education level, size of land
holding (acres), land ownership, cropping area of cotton (acres), cropping area of wheat (acres) and cropping
area of fodder (acres) related to IPM were studied. Patterns of change in human behavior relate to age and
younger farmers tend to be more open to agricultural innovations than that of their elders (Butt et al., 2011).
The respondents were asked about their age and their perceptions were tabulated in table 1. The data in table
1 reveals that most of the respondents (44.2%) were young (under 35 years), while 41.7% of the respondents
were between 36-50 years (middle aged). Only 14.2% of the respondents were over 50. Education relates to
the formal years of schooling and it enhances the learning ability, knowledge and wisdom of the farmers
(Mirza, 1994; Okunade, 2007). The education process develops knowledge and other desirable qualities by
means of formal schooling years. In this study, respondents were asked about their educational status and
their responses have been depicted in table 1. The results show that most of the people living in the research
area were educated (80.8%), only 19.2% respondents were uneducated. Amongst educated respondents,
more than half (57.5%) had primary to secondary education followed by primary (15%). During this study, it
was noticed that in rural areas, most of the families were sending their children to schools and thus the
education growth rate was increasing at a high speed. Size of land holding relates to the land area cultivated
by a farmer and it affects the adoption behavior of the farmer for the latest techniques of cultivation (Nawaz,
1989; McCown, 2002). Keeping in view the importance of size of land holding, respondents were asked about
the size of their land and their responses were recorded in table 1. A majority (85%) of the respondents had
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
29
small land holding (up to 12.5 acres), while 11.7% of the respondents had medium land holding (>12.6 to 25
acres) and 3.3% of the respondents had large land holding (more than 25 acres) (Table 1). Land ownership
refers to the mode of cultivating land (Idrees, 2003). In this study, three types of land ownership namely
owner, owner-cum tenant and tenant were considered. Owners were those types of farmers who cultivated
their own land. Owner-cum tenants were those types of farmers who farmed their own land and rented
others’ land. The tenants were those types of farmers who cultivated others’ land on rent. The data about type
of tenure have been presented in table 1 that shows that a majority of the respondents (80.8%) had their own
land, while only 17.5% of the respondents were tenants and only 1.7% of the respondents were appeared as
owner-cum-tenant. The data in table 1 also shows that an overwhelming majority of the respondents (90.8%)
had small land holding (up to 12.5 acre) and cultivated cotton and wheat crops. Large numbers of
respondents (70%) grew fodders and they also had small land holding. The respondents had mainly two
seasonal crops. It also shows that D. G. Khan area is diverse in agriculture.
Source of information regarding IPM
A new agricultural technology can be adopted by the efficient sources of information (Rogers, 1962). In this
study, farmers were asked about the sources of information regarding IPM and the data about their sources
were displayed in table 2. An overwhelming majority (80-100%) of the respondents reported that they got
information about IPM from extension field staff, local people, radio and newspaper respectively. More than
half (60%) of the respondents had learned about IPM via television and only 21.7% of respondents got
information about IPM from internet.
Frequency of visits by Extension Field Staff
The extension field staff plays a significant role in rural development. Acquaintance of farmers with EFS is
two dimensional i.e. it provides interest to the farmers for extension activities on one side and interest to EFS
in educational programs for the farmers on other side. The respondents were therefore, asked whether they
knew EFS of their area or not. The respondents were asked about the frequency of extension visits and their
responses are depicted in table 3. Less than half of the respondents (42.5%) reported that EFS provided
extension services fortnightly. About one-fourth of the respondents (29.2%) were of the view that EFS
provided extension services on a weekly basis, while 26.7% of the respondents replied monthly, only a small
fraction of the respondents (0.84%) replied that they got extension services once a year.
Cultural operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS
Various agricultural practices including crop rotation, cultivation of alternate host, trap crops and selection of
planting sites to make the environment less suitable for insect pests. The crop rotation minimizes the
incidence and severity of various plant diseases, and suitable planting site affects the severity of insect attack.
Keeping in view the importance of cultural operations, the respondents were asked about their perceptions
about the cultural operations with respect to IPM of cotton and their responses are represented in table 4.
The table shows that the information was excellent for more than half of the respondents (56.7%) regarding
resistant varieties, while it was excellent for 58.3% of the respondents for planting the right plants at the
right place. Furthermore, the information relating to rotating annual plants and intercropping was poor as
reported by 44.8 and 50.8% of the respondents, respectively (Table 4).
Physical operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS
The physical barriers including row covers and trenches limit the entry of insects into the crop. Row covers
can prevent the cucumber beetles to save the damage of cucurbits, while plastic lined trenches are used to
disperse the Colorado potato beetles. Likewise, cold storage is also considered as a physical control that stops
the development of insects on the stored grains. Therefore, the respondents were asked about the physical
operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS and their responses are displayed in table 5
which reflects that 55.8-97% of the respondents preserved information regarding pruning, mulching,
handpicking, trapping and light trap as poor category, while 22.5% of the respondents had information about
pruning, trapping, hand picking and mulching that fell in the category “fair”.
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
30
Biological operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS
A biological control or bio-control agent of insect, disease, and weed pests is an important practice of IPM.
Owing to the importance of biological control, the respondents were asked about this and their responses are
presented in table 6. About 69.2 to 84.2% of the respondents reported that microorganisms, beneficial
insects, buying and releasing beneficial insect and protecting beneficial insects were poorly addressed, while
very few respondents rated all the activities as fair, satisfactory, good and excellent (Table 6).
Chemical operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS
The chemical control of insect pests creates health issues, kills non-target species, and creates problems of
leaching and accumulation of residues on food crops. The chemical controls can only be used if other methods
are not adequate to control insect pests, and they must be labeled for a specific intended use. The results in
table 7 showed that EPS did not provide information about efficient and effective use of chemicals to the
farmers; therefore a majority of the respondents (90%) were poorly using insecticidal soap and horticultural
oils on crops”. Similarly, 62.5% respondents were poorly using synthetic insecticides, fungicides and
molluscicides.
Application of various IPM techniques in the field
Respondents were asked about to assess cultural activities and their responses are given in table 8. Resistant
varieties were frequently used by most of the respondents (42.5%) as cultural activities of IPM regarding
cotton. It was found that planting of right plant at right place and other activities were frequently adopted by
the respondents (45.8%). However, about one-third of the respondents were often rotating annual plants and
intercropping as cultural activities (Table 8). Respondents were investigated to assess the rating of physical
activities related to IPM of cotton. It is clear from the table 9 that all the physical activities related to IPM of
cotton were mostly applied as reported by 46.7, 54.2 and 65.8% of the respondents. However, most of the
farmer often applied the recommended physical activities (Table 9). Respondents were asked about the
application of IPM of biological activity and their responses given in table 10 that indicate that protecting
beneficial insects, releasing of beneficial insect, buying and releasing of beneficial insects, microorganisms
and parasitic nematodes were rarely applied by 59.2, 54.2, 52.5, 52.5, and 50% of the respondents,
respectively. Respondents were asked to assess the effects of chemical activity they applied relating to IPM,
and their responses are displayed in table 11. The data reflects that more than half of the respondents (54.2
and 55.0%) rarely applied horticultural oil and insecticidal soap as an IPM measure to their crop. Further,
botanical insecticides, and inorganic fungicides and insecticides were often applied as reported by about one-
third (37.5%) of the respondents. Very few (0.7-10.8%) respondents adopted the entire chemical regimen on
occasional to frequent basis (Table 11).
Reasons for non-adoption of IPM measures
Respondents’ responses regarding the non-adoption of IPM measures are presented in table 12. About one-
fifth of the respondents (21.7-23.3%) were of the view that lack of equipment and skills were the reasons of
non-adoption of IPM measures for some times, while about 20% frequently reported lack of finances as the
non-adoption reason. However about one-third (29.2%) recorded others reasons for non- adoption (Table
12).
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
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Table 1 Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents
Socio-economic characteristics
Frequency
Percentage
Age (years)
Up to 34
53
44.2
35-50
50
41.7
More than 50
17
14.2
Education level (years of schooling)
Uneducated
23
19.2
Primary 18 15
Primary to Secondary
69
57.5
F.A./F.Sc.
6
5
B.A./B.Sc.
3
2.5
M.A./M.Sc.
1
0.83
Size of land holding (acres)
Small (Up to 12.5)
102
85
Medium (> 12.5 to 25)
14
11.7
Large (> 25) 4 3.3
Land ownership
Owner
80.8
Owner-cum tenant
1.7
Tenant
Cropping area of cotton (acres)
17.5
Small (Up to 12.5) 109 90.8
Medium (> 12.5 to 25)
10
8.3
Large (> 25)
1
0.8
Cropping area of wheat (acres)
Small (Up to 12.5)
Medium (> 12.5 to 25)
Large (> 25)
Cropping area of fodder (acres)
Small (Up to 12.5)
Medium (> 12.5 to 25)
Large (> 25)
109
10
1
84
1
-
90.8
8.3
0.8
70
0.8
-
Table 2 Source of information regarding IPM
Respondents saying “Yes”
Respondents saying “No”
Information source
Frequency
Percentage
Frequency
Percentage
Extension field staff
120
100
0
0.0
Newspaper
97
80.8
23
20
Local people
120
100
0
0.0
Radio
116
96.7
4
2.3
TV
72
60
48
40
Internet
26
21.7
94
78.3
Respondents gave multiple response because of various sources of information
Table 3 Description of extension visits of the respondents
Provision of Extension Services
Frequency
Percentage
Weekly
35
29.2
Fortnightly
51
42.5
Monthly
32
26.7
Yearly
01
0.8
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32
Table 4 Rating of various cultural operations regarding IPM related activities provided by EFS as perceived by the respondents
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Cultural Activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Resistant varieties
-
-
02
1.7
21
17.5
29
24.2
68
56.7
120
100
Rotating annual plants
-
-
53
44.2
19
15.8
19
15.8
01
0.8
120
100
Intercropping
28
23
61
50.8
19
15.8
12
10
0
0
120
100
Planting right plant at right place
09
7.5
20
16.7
11
9.2
10
8.3
70
58.3
120
100
Table 5 Rating of information regarding IPM physical operations related activities provided by EFS
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Physical activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Hand picking
77
64.2
26
21.7
12
10
03
2.5
02
1.7
120
100
Pruning
67
55.8
19
15.8
29
24.7
05
4.2
0
0
120
100
Mulching
66
55
27
22.5
10
8.3
17
14.2
0
0
120
100
Trapping
89
74.2
24
20
07
5.8
0
0
0
0
120
100
Light traps
116
97
02
1.7
02
1.7
0
0
0
0
120
100
Table 6 Rating of information regarding IPM biological activities provided by EFS
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Biological Activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Beneficial insects
92
76.7
17
14.2
07
5.8
03
2.5
01
0.8
120
100
Protecting beneficial
insects
101
84.2
12
10
05
4.2
01
0.8
01
0.8
120
100
Buying and releasing
beneficial insects
96
80
11
9.2
09
7.5
03
2.5
01
0.8
120
100
Microorganisms
83
69.2
21
17.5
13
10.8
03
2.5
0
0
100
120
Parasitic nematodes
91
75.8
20
16.7
07
5.8
02
1.7
0
0
120
100
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
33
Table 7 Rating of chemical activity relating to IPM of cotton as perceived by the respondents
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Chemical operations
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Insecticidal soap
109
90.8
09
7.5
02
1.7
-
-
-
-
120
100
Horticultural oils
108
90
08
6.7
04
3.3
-
-
-
-
120
100
Botanical insecticides
25
20.8
66
55
16
13.3
10
8.3
03
2.5
120
100
Inorganic fungicides and insecticides
22
18.3
66
55
16
13.3
12
10
04
3.3
120
100
Synthetic insecticides, fungicides and
molluscicides
75
62.5
17
14.2
09
7.5
11
9.2
08
6.7
120
100
Table 8 Rating of cultural activities as adopted by the respondents
Rarely
Often
Occasionally
Sometime
Frequently
Total
Cultural activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Resistant varieties
0
0
0
0
11
9.2
18
15
51
42.5
80
66.7
Rotating annual plants
20
16.7
42
35
13
10.8
04
3.3
01
0.8
80
66.7
Intercropping
22
18.3
43
35.8
13
10.8
02
1.7
0
0
80
66.7
Planting the right plant in the right place
12
10
03
2.5
04
3.3
06
05
55
45.8
80
66.7
Table 9 Rating of various physical activities applied by the respondents
Frequently
Often
Occasionally
Sometime
Rarely
Total
Physical activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Hand picking
56
46.7
16
13.3
08
6.7
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Pruning
48
40
13
10.8
14
11.7
05
4.2
0
0
80
66.7
Mulching
45
37.5
18
15
06
05
11
9.2
0
0
80
66.7
Trapping
65
54.2
12
10
03
2.5
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Light traps
79
65.8
0
0
01
0.8
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Table 10 Rating of various biological activities applied by the respondents
Rarely
Often
Occasionally
Sometime
Frequently
Total
Biological activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Beneficial insects
65
54.2
10
8.3
05
4.2
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Protecting beneficial insects
71
59.2
05
4.2
04
3.3
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Buying and releasing beneficial insects
63
52.5
09
7.5
08
6.7
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Microorganisms
63
52.5
10
8.3
04
3.3
03
2.5
0
0
80
66.7
Parasitic nematodes
60
50
14
11.7
05
4.2
01
0.8
0
0
80
66.7
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
34
Utilization of extension methods by EFS for IPM of cotton
The respondents were asked about the extension methods used for educating farmers regarding IPM of
cotton and the responses are presented in table 13. Data depicts that result demonstration, farm and home
visits and field tour were effectively used methods by EFS as reported by 55.8, 55.8 and 54.2% of the
respondents, respectively. Whereas, method demonstration and group methods were also effectively used by
EFS reported by less than half of the respondents (47.5 and 46.7%). About 45.8 and 49.8% respondents
reported good use of demonstration (result and method). A majority of the respondents (79.2, 90.8, 91.7 and
93.3%) reported poor use of magazine multimedia, cassette and brochure by the EFS to educate the
respondents regarding IPM of cotton (Table 13).
Effectiveness of extension methods
The responses regarding the effectiveness of various methods on the bases of their effectiveness are
displayed in table 14. Slightly above half (54.2, 55.0 and 55.0%) and less than half (45.8and 41.7%) of the
respondents reported field tour, farm and home visits, result demonstration, method demonstration and
group meeting were the excellent methods on the bases of their effectiveness. About 45 and 53.3% rated
result and method demonstration as good in their effectiveness (Table 14). Newspaper was rated fair for its
effectiveness by most of the respondents (42.5%). Furthermore, a majority of the respondents (78.3, 90.0,
91.7 and 92.5%) disclosed that magazine, brushers, multimedia, and cassette were poor extension methods
on the bases of their effectiveness (Table 14).
Problems faced by the respondents in applying IPM of cotton
The farmers were polled regarding the problems for practical application of IPM in the field and their
responses are shown in table 15. More than half of the respondents (56.7%) were of the view that time is a
big problem in applying IPM. Most of the respondents (40%) and one-third of the respondents (34.2-35%)
rated practicability, approachability, adoptability and difficulty in management as a serious barrier to them
applying IPM. Further, more than half of the respondents (52.5-60.8%) rated practicability, difficult to
manage adoptability and approachability were high problems for them (Table 15).
Impact of IPM technology
The respondents were further asked about the impact of IPM technology on their crop and data in this regard
is presented in table 16. It is clear from the data that almost the entire respondents (99.2 -100%) were of the
view that IPM had positive impact on their crops.
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
35
Table 11 Rating of chemical activities relating to IPM of cotton by the respondents
Rarely
Often
Occasionally
Sometime
Frequently
Total
Chemical activity
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Insecticidal soap
66
55
12
10
02
1.7
0
0
0
0
80
66.7
Horticultural oils
65
54.2
08
6.7
06
05
01
0.8
0
0
80
66.7
Botanical insecticides
17
14.2
44
36.7
13
10.8
04
3.3
02
1.7
80
66.7
Inorganic fungicides and insecticides
18
15
45
37.5
11
9.2
05
4.2
01
0.8
80
66.7
Synthetic insecticides, fungicides and
molluscicides
45
37.5
18
15
10
8.3
06
05
01
0.8
80
66.7
Table 12 Reasons for non- adoption of IPM measures by the respondents
Rarely
Often
Occasionally
Sometime
Frequently
Total
Reasons
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Lack of skill
1
.8
0
0
2
1.7
28
23.3
9
7.5
40
33.3
Lack of equipments
0
0
0
0
5
4.2
26
21.7
9
7.5
40
33.4
Lack of finances
0
0
1
0.8
0
0
16
13.3
23
19.2
40
33.3
Table 13 Rating of various extension methods used by EFS for IPM of cotton
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Extension method
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Farm and home visits
0
0
01
0.8
16
13.3
36
30.0
67
55.8
120
100
Result demonstration
0
0
0
0
0
0
55
45.8
65
54.2
120
100
Method demonstration
0
0
0
0
05
4.2
59
49.2
56
46.7
120
100
Group meeting
01
0.8
06
5.0
27
22.5
29
24.2
57
47.5
120
100
Field tour
03
2.5
8
6.7
28
23.3
15
12.5
66
55.0
120
100
Newspaper
42
35.0
60
50.0
07
5.8
6
5.0
05
4.2
120
100
Magazine
95
79.2
16
13.3
0
0
05
4.2
04
3.3
120
100
Brusher
112
93.3
08
6.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
100
Cassette
110
91.7
07
5.8
03
2.5
0
0
0
0
120
100
Radio
24
20.0
45
37.5
46
38.3
05
4.2
0
0
120
100
Television
34
28.3
42
35.0
39
32.5
05
4.2
0
0
120
100
Multimedia
109
90.8
02
1.7
05
4.2
0
0
04
3.3
120
100
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
36
Table 14 Rating of extension methods on the bases of their effectiveness for IPM of cotton
Poor
Fair
Satisfactory
Good
Excellent
Total
Extension Method
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Farm and home visits
02
1.7
02
1.7
14
11.7
36
30.0
66
55.0
120
100
Result demonstration
0
0
0
0
0
0
54
45.0
66
55.0
120
100
Method demonstration
0
0
01
0.8
0
0
64
53.3
55
45.8
120
100
Group meeting
09
7.5
0
0
28
23.3
27
22.5
56
46.7
120
100
Field tour
02
1.7
11
9.2
27
22.5
15
12.5
65
54.2
120
100
Newspaper
57
47.5
51
42.5
09
7.5
01
0.8
02
1.7
120
100
Magazine
94
78.3
19
15.8
06
5.0
01
0.8
0
0
120
100
Brusher
108
90.0
10
8.3
02
1.7
0
0
0
0
120
100
Cassettes
111
92.5
09
7.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
100
Radio
23
19.2
41
34.2
50
41.7
06
5.0
0
0
120
100
Television
31
25.8
41
34.2
40
33.3
08
6.7
0
0
120
100
Multimedia
110
91.7
04
3.3
05
4.2
01
0.8
0
0
120
100
Table 15 Rating of various problems faced by the respondents in applying IPM of cotton
Very Low
Low
Medium
High
Very High
Total
Problem
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Lack of resources
03
2.5
0
0
08
6.7
45
37.5
64
53.3
120
100
Difficult to manage
01
0.8
0
0
10
8.3
68
56.7
41
34.2
120
100
Adoptability
0
0
01
0.8
07
5.8
71
9.2
42
35.0
120
100
Approachable
0
0
01
0.8
05
4.2
73
60.8
41
34.2
120
100
Practicable
01
0.8
0
0
08
6.7
63
52.5
48
40.0
120
100
Time consuming
01
0.8
37
30.8
01
0.8
13
10.8
68
56.7
120
100
Other (please specify)
116
96.7
02
1.7
0
0
0
0
02
1.7
120
100
Table 16 Impact of IPM technology adopted as perceived respondents
Negative
No impact
Positive
Total
Impact
Frequency
Percentage
Frequency
Percentage
Frequency
Percentage
Frequency
Percentage
Impact on production
0
0
0
0
199
99.2
120
100
Impact on skills
0
0
0
0
120
100
120
100
Impact on finance
0
0
1
0.8
119
99.2
120
100
Impact on management
0
0
0
0
120
100
120
100
Impact on health
0
0
0
0
120
100
120
100
Impact on environment
0
0
0
0
120
100
120
100
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
37
DISCUSSION
In the agriculture sector, the success of any program and project depends upon the efficiency of the extension
field staff (EFS). EFS are key stake holders and play significant roles in providing services for agricultural
extension, therefore they are crucial for rural as well as agricultural development. IPM is considered with eco-
friendly strategy and one can use it to minimize the risks to people and the environment. It focuses on a
combination of various methods for prevention of pests in the long term that cannot work better alone.
Approaches for managing pests and insects include the use of resistant cultivars, cultural methods, biological
methods and habitat manipulation. The pesticides are only used when they are needed and applied in a
manner that minimizes risks to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment. The
IMP is also known as Integrated Pest Control (IPC) that controls pests with the aim of suppressing the pest
population under the Economic Injury Level (EIL) for economic control through the integration of various
methods (Perrings et al., 2001; FAO, 2012). The present study was conducted keeping in view the importance
of IPM techniques for growing cotton in district D. G. Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. It has been reported that crop
productivity for most of the crops in Pakistan is very low as compared with developed countries. This may be
due to the limited access of farmers to the latest farming technology as well as poor services of agriculture
extension departments.
Consistent to our findings, Mallah and Korejo (2007) evaluated cotton crop and farm level cotton
production practices by surveying various parts of cotton growing districts of Sindh and observed that 50%
of the farmers were able to identify the insect pests. Generally, the farmers sprayed their crop 3-4 times and
in some cases 3-8 sprays were done mostly with hand sprayer. The main crop rotation; cotton-wheat-cotton
was found in the study area. A study was conducted by Swinton and Day (2000) who reported that southern
Punjab was a major cotton production region of Pakistan. The average yield of cotton was about 560 kg/ha. In
this region, the demand for pesticides was continuously increasing. There was a dire need for alternate
methods of pest management for sustainable and profitable cotton production. IPM was an appropriate
method which can reduce or minimize the use of pesticides and cost of production as well. A similar study
was conducted by Wilson and Tisdell (2001) who reported that the advancement of agricultural production
processes increased the crop productivity and well-being of the rural areas. It also ensured self-sufficiency in
food grains and fibre production. In southern Punjab, cotton has been known as white gold being a major
fibre crop of the country. In cotton production, pesticides were intensively used to control the pests. The
Public Health Officials were increasingly concerned about the adverse effects of the applications of pesticides
by the farmers in cotton production. Pesticide applications not only generated negative externalities for
health and environment, but also increased the economic cost of cotton producers.
Our study found that IPM is an economically sound and environmentally safe method that can significantly
increase the production of cotton. These findings are in accordance with Anonymous (2002) who stated that
the IPM system was economically viable. Sustainable agriculture involved the successful management of
resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human needs maintaining the quality of the environment and
conserving the natural resources. The world experience over the years has shown that the best way for the
transfer of technology practice was through trainings of facilitators and Farmer Field School (FFS) activities,
which formulated the core of cotton IPM programmes. Work (2002) reported that the extension department
was equipped with some exogenously adopted tools of print media, field visits, audio-visual aids and the local
needs had never been addressed. The socio-cultural environment of the province was not suitable for all of
these tools for a variety of reasons. The print media was wrongly used as a technique in a farming community
with more than 80% of the citizens being illiterate. The tribal culture was one of the major obstacles for
making big gatherings from different villages and providing trainings at one time. It called upon huge funding
and staff to provide farmers training in such cultural settings. Under such conditions, audio-visual aids had
been reported as one of the most useful techniques and their best use in field conditions had shown
improvement on the efficiency of EFS.
Our findings were in agreement with the previous research study by Feder and Savastano (2006) who
found that if the opinion leaders were slightly superior to followers but not very superior in socio-economic
status then they were also effective in disseminating the information and awareness about IPM technology
among other farmers. The adoption of improved conservation practices increased the crop yield. During our
study we found that the best way to accelerate the adoption of IPM technology was by means of education
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
38
and training of farmers about IPM. Coherent with our findings, Pilcher (2001) attempted to develop a
standardized measurement tool to determine factors that contributed to IPM adoption for corn, soybean, and
cotton production in Iowa and Texas but could be accessible to other commodities and regions. They
developed a survey instrument from an IPM definition that represented the widest scope of strategies and
determined 21 pest management tactics regarded by growers to be IPM oriented. From preliminary results,
over 60 percent of participants identified three variables; scouting, economic threshold, and field records of
pest population to be significant when implementing an IPM program. These three tactics were also found to
be consistent with other literature regarding IPM measurement. Drost et al. (1996) surveyed over 900
growers in Utah and determined that for potato farmers, the adoption or rejection of an IPM program was
determined based on time availability, market demand for commodities based on specific pest management
approaches and real time IPM information. FAO (2006) also found that the FFS approach on IPM had the
potential to provide farmers with the practical knowledge and skills to operate more effectively in a market
oriented agricultural system and to enable optimum utilization of services offered by private providers.
In an earlier study Bartlett (2005) stated that the first FFS was introduced in Indonesia in 1989. It was a
group based learning approach, which was used by NGO, government departments and some international
agencies to promote IPM. At this time, millions of people participated in this type of learning. The author also
discussed some organizational issues relating to leadership, human resources, policy making and competition
among farmers. The calculation of cost and benefit ratio stressed the farmer to join the IPM FFS, the donors
and government agencies also funded it because of its beneficial aspects. In conclusion, FFS was very
beneficial for poor farmers living in rural areas. Guinee (2002) studied that FFS worked in reducing the use of
pesticides and other chemical pest control measures by switching the farmers to IPM in the Netherlands. FFS
also helped in controlling the environmental pollution and health problems caused by the pesticides. Through
FFS, the technology transferred to farmers and they got a lot of knowledge about the biological pests control
method and saved their pesticide expenses. The FFS approach on IPM had the potential to provide farmers
with the practical knowledge and skills to operate more effectively in a market-oriented agricultural system
and to enable optimum utilization of services offered by private providers (FAO, 2006).
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study concluded that Extension Field Staff were making good progress in helping farmers in D. G. Khan,
Punjab, Pakistan to better utilize Integrated Pest Management techniques in their cotton production
operations. Extension field staff and local people were the major sources of information regarding IPM of
cotton. More than half of the study respondents were under 35 years of age and more than half of this group
had at least primary level education. A majority (85%) had small landholdings (up to 12.5 acres) and was
owners of their land. The study found that education and age were both factors that guided respondents’
appreciation of IPM methods and their ability to make use of training materials. The satisfaction level
regarding chemical application was very low. Two-thirds of the respondents applied IPM techniques in the
field, while one-third of the respondents were either not adopting the IPM technique in the field or were only
partially adopting it. Demonstrations, farm and home visits and field tours were highly effective methods
used by EFS as reported by 54.2 and 55.8% respondents, respectively. More than half of the respondents
(56.7%) were of the view that IPM was very time-consuming and that this presented a barrier to its adoption.
We recommend that Extension Field Staff focus their efforts helping farmers better understand the time
constraints of IPM and how they can be more effective in using the method. Also they should focus on making
sure cultural and biological controls are properly adopted so that the benefits of using IPM instead of
chemical pest controls become well accepted. The extension field staff should utilize the extension method for
the promotion of IPM technologies among the farmers. They should also consider launching the IPM program
for cotton crops in other districts of the Punjab. The present study was conducted on a limited scale;
therefore, future researchers may want to use it as a starting place for further research in other areas of the
province. Areas such as the benefits of IPM on water quality and ways to better educate farmers in tribal
areas are ripe for examination.
Journal of Rural Development and Agriculture (2017) 2(1): 26-40
39
Author Contribution Statement Badar Naseem Siddiqui generated the idea, supervised the research. Muhammad Adeel
conducted the research project. Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen wrote the manuscript. Adnan Rayit analyzed the data. Shah
Fahd edited the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the manuscript to be published in Journal of Rural
Development and Agriculture.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements The authors are thankful to department of Agricultural Extension, PMAS-Arid Agriculture
University, Rawalpindi for providing platform for this research.
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